Procedural Justice:
A Guiding Principle for Police Use-of-Force Training

Author: Victor McCraw

Written December 2019

Published September 2021 (Article below)

Select the cover image to view the full Magazine
See Pages 39-43


Bayley, D. H. (2018, January 30). The forgotten path to police reform in the United States: an essay. Policing and Society, 28(2), 125-136.

Clark, R. C. (2008). Building expertise: Cognitive methods for training and performance improvement (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

Goode, D. B. (2018, May 27). Law enforcement policies and the reasonable use of force. Willamette Law Review, 54(2), 371-425. Retrieved from

Lynch, C. (2018). You have the right to remain violent: Police academy curricula and the facilitation of police overreach. Social Justice, 45(2/3), 75-91. Retrieved from

McCoy, M. R. (2006). Teaching style and the application of adult learning principles by police instructors. Policing, 29(1), 77-91.

Mummolo, J. (2017, December 6). Modern police tactics, police-citizen interactions, and the prospects for reform. The Journal of Politics, 80(1), 1-15.

Owens, E., Weisburd, D., Amendol, K. L., & Alper, G. P. (2018). Can you build a better cop?: Experimental evidence on supervision, training, and policing in the community. American Society of Criminology, 17(1), 41-87.

President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. (2015). Final report of the President’s task force on 21st century policing. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services

Washington, DC 20530 Rajakaruna, N., Henry, P. J., Cutler, A., & Fairman, G. (2017). Ensuring the validity of police use of force training. Police Practice and Research, 18(5), 507-521.

Wallace, D., White, M. D., Gaub, J. E., & Todak, N. (2018). Body-worn cameras as a potential source of depolicing: Testing for camera-induced passivity. Criminology, 56(3), 481-509.